Monday, May 18, 2015

Experimental Drugs May Come to Patients with Few Other Options

Should patients with few other treatment options for serious conditions or diseases get a chance to use unproven experimental drugs if they are not part of a research study ("J & J Creates Ethics Panel to Allow Access to Experimental Drugs," CBC/Radio-Canada, May 7, 2015)? The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) takes requests for "compassionate use" unproven medicine for patients with incurable or chronic conditions, though federal law in the United States does not allow corporations to distribute unsanctioned pharmaceuticals. The newly formed approval group at Johnson & Johnson (J & J), including medical personnel, bioethicists, and "patient representatives" will decide who gets the untested drugs now instead of individual medical researchers. Personal physicians can request access to experimental drugs for their seriously ill patients through a J & J phone number or web site.

Discussion Questions:
  1. The article goes on to state that there will be legal issues if patients experience negative or no effects from the unproven drugs. If you had to serve on the ethics board to decide whether a patient should be able to take an untested drug, what factors would you consider when making a decision? Would you give an unproven drug to someone who is terminally ill, believing that they have a very small chance to improve with any medication?
  2. Is it fair to give seriously ill people false hope with these experimental drugs? There is no mention of the cost of these untested drugs. Do you think the drug companies should make these drugs free or at low cost if users are required to report their results which would benefit the pharmaceutical industry and potentially speed up the process for getting the drugs approved?

Monday, January 12, 2015

Non-Prescribed Study Drugs Promote Academic Dishonesty?

Should the illegal use of prescription stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin by college students to improve studying sessions be considered as academic dishonesty ("Illegal Study Drug Use on the Rise, Not Addressed by Universities," USA Today, November 18, 2014)? The Academy of Medical Sciences in Great Britain suggested that colleges and universities should prohibit non-prescribed "academic performance-enhancing stimulants" because they are akin to athletes taking steroids to improve athletic performance.

Discussion Questions:
  1. Do you think taking non-prescribed drugs to improve course study sessions should be considered as academically dishonest? Why or why not?
  2. Although the article doesn't address the risks of taking these drugs, a CNN report mentions that they can cause "psychological and physical dependence, sleep difficulties, restlessness, headaches, irritability and depressed feelings." If more students knew about this potential harm, would they think twice about using the drugs without a prescription? Why or why not?
  3. Should student use of non-prescribed stimulants like Adderall and Ritalin be treated simply as a drug offense? Why or why not?

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Bogus Classes Taken by 3100 Students at UNC

A new report details the extent of University of North Carolina's academic fraud stemming from years of offering classes for which there were very few requirements needed to pass the course  ("Academic Fraud or Not, UNC Students Likely Will Keep Degrees," CNN, October 26, 2014). Some 3100 students including many athletes took these courses in the African-American studies program (AFAM) to keep their GPAs high enough for eligibility to play collegiate sports.

Discussion Questions:
  1. Do you think it's a good idea to give students the option to confess that they committed an academically dishonest act in return for a lesser punishment? Why or why not?
  2. Do you think that students should be given the option to correct a plagiarized paper in return for a lower grade instead of getting a failing grade? Why or why not?
  3. Do you think students who use this "regret clause" will learn from their mistake and not commit academically dishonest acts again? Why or why not?

Monday, October 6, 2014

Harvard Softens Penalty on Cheaters If They Confess

If you feel remorse after committing an unethical act in a Harvard computer science course and report it within 72 hours, your professor may give you a lighter penalty ("CS50 Introduces New Integrity Policy, Bypassing Ad Board," The Harvard Crimson, September 26, 2014). This new punishment plan in David J. Malan's class has been dubbed the "regret clause." It is listed in his syllabus under the Academic Integrity heading at http://goo.gl/L63ayP. This option, based on a student's remorse, is outside the usual academic integrity offense case procedure that requires consultation with the university's Administrative Board and the department chair before allowing your professor to give you an "unsatisfactory or failing grade" on the assignment.

Discussion Questions:
  1. Do you think it's a good idea to give students the option to confess that they committed an academically dishonest act in return for a lesser punishment? Why or why not?
  2. Do you think that students should be given the option to correct a plagiarized paper in return for a lower grade instead of getting a failing grade? Why or why not?
  3. Do you think students who use this "regret clause" will learn from their mistake and not commit academically dishonest acts again? Why or why not?

Monday, July 28, 2014

Can Plagiarism Be Caused by PTSD?

A newly-appointed U.S. Senator from Montana blamed his non-attribution of sources in his master's degree thesis on PTSD ("Walsh Says He Was Being Treated for PTSD When He Plagiarized Paper," Billings Gazette, July 23, 2014). One-fourth of John Walsh's paper for the U.S. Army War College appears to have been plagiarized. What is most disconcerting is that he used another source verbatim for a key part of the project.

In a New York Times article from July 24, 2014, the U.S. Army War College is ready to convene a review board next month to look into the allegation. The Times story notes that in the last fourteen years only six people have been stripped of their degrees at the college due to plagiarism.

Discussion Questions:
  1. Walsh says he "excelled on the battlefield" and that a "few mistakes in a term paper should not define my career." If one-fourth of his thesis was copied from another source as indicated in the story, do you think Walsh's statement is justified? Why or why not?
  2. Should individuals in the military be held to a higher standard of ethics than the general public? Why or why not?
  3. What do you think of his PTSD defense as the reason for committing plagiarism?
  4. Should Walsh lose his degree and his job at U.S. Senator for this breach of academic integrity? Why or why not?

Sunday, May 4, 2014

Professor Moves to Dean's Post Despite Multiple Incidences of Plagiarism

Because inadvertent plagiarism is not included as a research misconduct infraction in the institution's policy, a Brown University English department faculty member began a new job as an associate dean after her "unintentional" plagiarism had already surfaced ("After Plagiarism Allegations, Prof. Was Named Dean," The Brown Daily Herald, April 24, 2014).

Vanessa Ryan used over two dozen copied passages from other authors in her 2012 book that is no longer in print from Johns Hopkins University Press. She has apologized publicly about her errors, but also located "unattributed material in her dissertation" from Yale. The committee looking into her plagiarism while on the payroll at Brown acknowledged that she did plagiarize the work of others, but that her "honest error" was not considered "misconduct."

Discussion Questions:
  1. Should an English professor know better than to make such obvious mistakes as copying others without giving them credit, especially in a book published by a well-known university press? If so, why do you think she committed such errors?
  2. Her new administrative job is a temporary one for eighteen months, but should she have been fired for such a blatant mistake? Since she also acknowledged errors of attribution in her Yale dissertation, why would Brown want to continue to employ her?
  3. She continues to work with students on research projects on a limited basis. If you were one of those students, would you want to ask if you could work with another research adviser that had a better academic reputation even if the completion of your work might be delayed by the change? 

Professor Focuses on Unintentional Plagiarism

At a recent Conference on College Composition and Communication, discussion centered on instructing students how to use source material correctly to avoid mistakes in attribution ("Beyond Plagiarism," Inside Higher Ed, March 21, 2014).

Professors in attendance talked about students who used an inappropriate source that really didn't prove a point, citing an abstract (summary) of a paper instead of the paper itself, and other errors that may be overlooked in traditional anti-plagiarism instruction. One professor mentioned tips about clearly marking where a source begins and noting where a student's ideas begin. But one panel of educators agreed that teaching citation strategies is not only a job for writing professors, but a responsibility for all professors on campus.

Discussion Questions:
  1. What do you check to determine if a web page or article is a reliable and pertinent source of information?
  2. Is it a challenge to take notes from sources so you know where an author's ideas end and your thoughts begin? Or do you have a proven technique for separating your ideas from others?
  3. Do you feel comfortable citing sources in different formats such as MLA, APA, or Chicago Style? Is in-text citation harder or easier than writing a bibliography/works cited/references page? Why or why not?
  4. Have you asked a professor, tutor, or librarian for help with citing sources? Did they provide useful instruction or cause you more confusion?